– This is a production of PBS Charlotte. – The following episode of Charlotte Cooks is brought to you by Central
Piedmont Community College. And viewers like you. Thank you. (upbeat music) – Hi there, I’m Chef Pamela Roberts and welcome to this
edition of Charlotte Cooks. Have you ever wanted to make bread at home but didn’t really know how? Think it’s way too complicated? Well, you can make bread
in a very complicated way or you can make bread
in a very simple way. I have made bread for my family ever since my son was born and it is just one of those things that’s really very easy to do. My grandmother used to make bread for all of her family. She got married to my grandfather and she had a yours, mine,
and ours kind of family with lots of mouths to feed. And everyday she’d wake
up and she’d have loaves of bread over every
heating vent in the house. The house smelled marvelous. So, today I’m going to show
you a very simple loaf of bread that you can make. It can be done in less than two hours. You can have delicious
fresh bread for your family where you know exactly what’s in it and it’s just going to be
delicious and irresistible and you’ll probably go buy a
commercial loaf of bread again once you know how to do this. So, what are we going to use? We are going to us flour, okay, flour. How much flour are we going to use? We’re going to use three
and a half cups of flour. I’m gonna use a good size
mixer because my mixer is going to knead this for me. I’m not gonna have to knead it myself. So, I’m going to take three
and a half cups of flour. So, how am I going to measure my flour? I’m going to take my measuring cup … Now, a lot of times people will say, oh, we’re just gonna measure flour by putting it in there like this. No, you can’t do that. You can’t also take flour and
put it in like this, okay. We have to measure our
flour in a very specific way because one thing we don’t
wanna do is pack our flour into the measuring cup. So, basically you’re gonna
lightly scoop the flour and you’re going to take a flat edge knife and you’re gonna scrape it from half way to the back and then you’re gonna take it all the way forward. That is one level cup of flour and that’s how you measure flour, okay. It makes a big difference. Now, if you’re measuring
and you’re recipe calls for eight ounces of flour, then you gotta get out a scale and you have
to weigh eight ounces of flour. You can’t say well I know
a cup is eight ounces, I’m just gonna put a cup. Because a cup of flour does
not weigh eight ounces. It only weighs about
four and a half ounces. And so, if you tried to
do that with your recipes, you’re gonna find that your
recipes are not working out and you’re gonna say, I hate making bread. But, it’s not really that hard to do so you just have to be accurate. Now, I need three and
a half cups of flour, so I got one and a half there now so let me get another two, okay. You always wanna make sure you get this little back end here filled because this is the one
area right back here that usually leaves a
little air pocket, okay. So, what kind of flour am I going to use? Well, right now, you
could use just regular, what we call All Purpose flour or AP flour and that’s okay. It’s not the best for bread, but it’s okay if that’s what you had. It’ll make a decent loaf. You can also use a high gluten flour and you can also use Bread flour. Bread flour and High
Gluten flour are basically what allows the bread to stretch and we’re gonna be seeing
that stretch happen after we get this mixed. And so, in our bowl we’ve got our flour and the next thing we’re gonna add to this is our yeast, our salt,
a little bit of sugar and then we’re gonna add water and oil. It’s just a very simple bread, okay. Now, if you wanted to add
whole wheat flour to this, you can, but you have to realize that with Whole Wheat flour, even if you looked at Whole Wheat flour, it’s really course, and you can feel the
little sharp edges on it. So, what happens with
that is it doesn’t allow the bread to actually rise as high as if you just had a regular Bread flour or a non Whole Wheat flour. Could you use Chia seeds? Could you use all kinds of
different things in here? Yeah, you can, but I’d
really like you to get used to making the basic loaf
first before you start adding other things to it. I’m gonna add a little bit of sugar. Now, in here, I’ve got some coconut sugar. You can use regular white sugar. You can use organic sugar. I’m using a little bit of coconut sugar because I think it adds
just a really nice little dimension of flavor. It’s not a whole lot of flavor. You won’t say, oh look,
there’s coconut sugar in this. It’s just a nice flavor to add, okay. It also provides, well the
sugar provides, a little bit of food for the yeast. The yeast we’re using here is one and a half tablespoons of yeast. Now, let’s talk about yeast for a second. You have all different kinds of yeast. The kind of yeast that
we’re going to use today is an instant yeast. Some recipes will call for
your yeast to be sprinkled over warm water and let it
sit for about ten minutes until it comes foamy and you can see it bubbling and whatever. That is a yeast that
needs to be activated. A lot of times, yeast is
very dormant in it’s state that it’s dried and
you have to activate it to kick it into life,
so to speak, in order for it to start its rising activity. And so, when we use instant
yeast, we don’t have to do that adding it
to the water bit, okay. So you can just take your yeast if you’re using instant yeast, which is what we’re using today and it’s my favorite yeast to use because I’m impatient and I
just like to keep on going. I don’t like to have to
stop and wait for the yeast to decide to wake up a bubble. This is already ready to rock and roll. So, I’m gonna take the
yeast and I’m gonna put it on the opposite side of
the bowl from where I put my sugar and my salt and
the reason for that is that the salt will
inhibit the yeast activity but the sugar increases
the yeast activity. And so, we wanna make
sure that we just get this on opposite sides so when
we start adding our water, the yeast isn’t gonna go,
no I have to be dormant, oh I have to be active,
it’s going to just go, I’m going to be active when
it gets the water, okay. So, I’ve got this all set up in my bowl. I’m gonna put it on my mixer and you’re gonna need a
heavy duty mixer for this and for this, we’re
gonna use a dough hook. A dough hook is this. It looks like a curly pigtail, okay. This is wonderful for kneading, okay. When you’re kneading your bread, you can get a good upper arm workout and you can spend a good
half hour kneading bread or you can go ahead
and use your dough hook and in our case, when you use a dough hook and a commercial mixer or any kind of a big heavy
duty mixer like this, you’re only gonna need to let
it process for ten minutes. So, I’m gonna start with a low speed and get my flour all mixed up here. It’s gonna mix in the flour
and the yeast a little bit. And now, I’m gonna take my water. My water needs to be about
110 degrees, alright. 110 degrees is gonna feel warm. I have this in a mason jar. Guys, mason jars are
like the kitchen miracle. You can heat them up. You can freeze them. They’re wonderful, they’re
wonderful tempered glass. It’s not going to break on you unless you drop it, of course. So, now I’ve got my water in here. This is one and a half cups of water and I’m going to add one
tablespoon of Olive oil. Our olive oil, I like
adding it to the water because then it just goes into the mixer and mixes in with the rest of the yeast and the flour and everything else and makes a nice dough, as
opposed to putting the water in and then adding the oil and it takes a while longer
for it to get incorporated. So, here we go. We’re just gonna take this and we’re going to drop it
right in slowly along the edge. You don’t want to have your mixer speed up to high at this point and
the reason for that is, you’re gonna be wearing
a lot of flour if you do. Cause, what does flour
do when it’s agitated? Whoosh, it gets airborne
and goes everywhere. So, as this is coming
up, we’re gonna increase our speed slowly and
we’re gonna let it knead for ten minutes. Sometimes, you’re gonna
have to get a spatula and help it along a little
bit and scrape it down. It’s always a good idea to be prepared to scrape down your bowls no matter what. Now, this dough, when you look at it, you’re gonna think, oh it’s
a little on the wet side. And that’s a good thing. It should be. And if you need to add a
little more water to it, you certainly can. I’m gonna let this all come together into the nice dough mass. One of the things I wanna
caution you about this dough is it is a wet looking dough and so if you feel like dough is too wet, you can add a little flour,
but I would really try to resist adding any extra water to this, because the wetter the
dough, the more your dough is going to have big holes in it and it’s just really kind of nice. Okay, so I’m gonna let
this sit for 15 minutes. After 15 minutes, it’s
gonna look like this, okay. And so now, it’s ready to shape and how are we going to shape this? We’re going to take it and we’re gonna put it
on our cutting board. So, I’m gonna take a little bit of flour and I’m gonna dust my bench with it. It’s just a cutting board on a counter, but I can call it a bench. Okay, just a little bit of flour. You don’t want a whole lot, okay. Gonna use a bowl scraper. Bowl scrapers are marvelous. You see that little curved edge? That’s for getting it inside of the bowl. This side, for cutting, it’s wonderful. Okay, just gonna turn
this, turn it right out. Come on out, there we go. Gonna set that aside. Now, if the dough is very
sticky, what you wanna do is you wanna take a little bit of flour and dust the surface of the dough so all the sticky parts have a little bit of flour on it, okay. Gonna flip it over a
couple times, shake it up. Just look at this. This is so cool. You guys are gonna fall in
love with working with dough. Dough is just the bomb, so
to speak, the dough bomb. Okay, so if you’re feeling that
the dough is at all sticky, you’re gonna wanna go ahead and put a little flour down, okay. So, now, this is a ciabatta loaf. So, a ciabatta loaf typically
is rectangular in shape. But, I also find that this bread makes really good sandwiches and really good french toast and really good bread that you might need for whatever it is that you might need. So, what I’m going to do here is I’m going to just roll
it out into a rectangle. And notice I’m not really even rolling it. I’m pushing it with my hands. Notice it shrinks back a little bit. Sometimes when it shrinks back like this, you’re gonna want to take your cellophane and you wanna let it
rest a little bit, okay. Just cover it with a piece of cellophane, five or ten minutes. That’s all you have to do because it’s tired from working out. It’s just been worked out on
that whole dough hook thing. I mean if you sat there
on that dough hook thing for ten minutes, you’d
be kinda worn out too. That’s why we let it rest for 15 minutes and when you come back
to this, like I said, if it’s pushing and pulling on you, then it needs a little
bit more of a rest, okay. So, you can take this
now, get it nice and even. We’re gonna roll it up. Don’t worry about bubbles. Bubbles, I think, are a good thing, because that’s going to ensure that we’re gonna have nice airy insides. Pinch your bottom seam together. Roll him over. Now, we’re gonna get a sheet pan and we’re gonna make sure
it’s lined with Parchment. You can also use this with a Sealpac or those silicone baking sheets. You’re just looking for
something to make it not stick to the bottom of the pan. Do you have to use Parchment? No, can you put it directly on the pan? Yes, if you sprayed it or
put oil on the bottom of it. I just like this, it’s easier clean up. Just take and throw the paper away. Put a little bit of corn meal, and corn meal is one of your best friends for doing bread products and keeping them from sticking on things. I’m gonna take my loaf, it
looks kind of funky doesn’t he? He looks really funky. But, you know what, it’s
great, it’s really great. It’s not supposed to be perfect, okay. Put this on your sheet pan here and you’re gonna let it
rise for 45 minutes, okay. So then, cellophane over it and if you have a proofing
element on your stove, put on the bread proofing
and pop this in there. It should take 45 minutes
for it to get really big. Let me show you. See what I mean, really big. You’re going to take this cellophane off very, very carefully. Now, at this point, this is oven ready. So, one thing we have to watch out for, when you put bread in the oven,
let me show you something. Sometimes you see slashes on the top. This bread was not slashed on the top and what happens with that, when you put the bread in the oven, we have a phenomenon
that’s called oven spring. And what that is, is the
yeast when it hits the heat, it goes whew and it
gives it’s last hurrah. It gives it’s last whew, final rise. It’s really kinda cool to watch. It’s really very very cool to watch. It’s just like wah and it
gets a little bit bigger. If you don’t slash the tops of these, you get this thing going on. Doesn’t make the bread inedible. Makes the bread kinda ugly, but what this is, is that
this had no where to go and when you slash the top, what it does is it gives that rising, that last oven spring somewhere to go so that you can control
the shape of your loaf and you don’t end up with
a blowout like this, okay. Would we still eat this? Oh yeah, alright, so let me
go pop this into the oven. A couple things you can do with this. You can take a brush
and brush it with water so you have water on the top. You can take it and you can
mist it with a water bottle and get water on the top. You can leave the water
off of it all together. What the water does is it
adds an element of steam and what that does is, it makes the crust really really crispy, really really hard and very very thin and so this is ready to go in the oven. I’m going to slash this so you guys can see how to slash, okay. What do you need? Some people will use something
called a Baker’s Peel, which looks a lot like a razor blade. Some people will use a razor blade. Some people will use a scalpel. But I bet more people have serrated knives in their kitchens than they
do scalpels or razor blades or anything like that. So, quickly, I’m going to make
two slices across the bread and then this has got to
go in the oven, like now. Because if it doesn’t,
what is gonna happen is it’s all gonna sit there
and lose all it’s energy and totally deflate and go flat, okay. So, this happens just as we’re putting it in the oven, alright. So, you ready? Here we go. Into the oven we go, whew. Okay, so the hard work is done now and really that wasn’t
even very hard, was it? Really, honestly guys
when you make this bread, you can sit down, you can mix the stuff. It’s gotta sit for 15 minutes. You can go have a cup of tea. Then you can can come back, shape it, let it sit for 45 minutes. In that 45 minutes, you’re
heating up your oven and then you can go
have another cup of tea or you can get on the
computer, do Facebook, do whatever you want and
then put it in the oven for 30 minutes, let it bake
and then it’s done, it’s done. Very little hands on time and it’s really remarkable
how wonderful fresh bread is. But, I wanted to show
you this blowout bread. What are you gonna do? Commercial bakers wouldn’t sell this. But, at home, we’d
scarf it up, no problem. So, let’s see what it
looks like when we cut it. Should I cut it in the middle? Yeah, just cut it in the middle. We’re gonna see what it looks like. So, now we see, we’ve got
the nice bit holes in there. It’s very characteristic
of ciabatta bread. When you slice bread, what
not to do and what to do. I’m gonna use this
piece for the not to do. Sometimes when I’ve seen
people come up and cut bread, first of all, make sure you
use a serrated knife, okay. Serrated knives are very
sharp and serrated knives are gonna cut through the crust and their gonna cut through the bread without crushing it, okay. So, I’ve seen people come up and do bread where they mash it all down, okay. You don’t wanna mash it down. What you wanna do is let the
bread, you wanna make sure the teeth on your knife
cut through the crust and then saw it back and forth. You’re not putting any downward pressure on your knife at all, okay. Watch that again. You’re gonna let the knife
grab, look at that texture of that bread, (laughs) watch this. See sometimes it’ll slide across the top, let those teeth catch and
let it come right on down. Okay, so you’ve got this bread and you have lots of bread left from all kinds of things at home. Now we know how to slice a piece of bread. Put this on a plate. So, what if we did French Toast and we wanted to make
stuffed French Toast? Okay, well first of all,
we’d have to find a bread that didn’t have this big hole in it. So, let’s find one. There we go. You notice that this bread
has got a little different sheen on the surface. What did we do to it when
it came out of the oven? We brushed it with a
little bit of olive oil. You can brush it with
a little bit of butter. It just makes the crust
a little bit more tender. So, we’re talking about
Stuffed French Toast. We’re going to take the end off the bread. My husband, he would like die for this. He loves this piece of bread. I usually put them on the
side to let him eat them cause I like the center. Cut a nice thick piece, alright. And then to make it stuffed, you’re going to take your knife and you’re going to cut a
little pocket into it, okay. See how I’m doing that? Just cutting a little bitty
pocket into this bread. And then, inside of this
pocket, you’re going to take, oh you know one of my favorite
first Stuffed French Toast is goat cheese. That sounds crazy but I
like to take goat cheese and put a little bit of honey in it and I’ll make a little bit of
it and I put it inside there, (laughs) just put it inside
there and they you can dip this into egg wash, put it
in your pan and serve it with a blueberry syrup. Hello, I’m stuffed French Toast. That’s the way to do that folks. But, look at this bread. This is really nice. Look at that, isn’t that a nice crumb? This is what we look at
when we’re looking at bread. What is the crumb like on the bread? The crumb is this density that we have inside the bread here. Sometimes, we have a loose crumb. Sometimes, we have a tight crumb. Like we were talking here
with this big air pockets, some ciabatta is very very very common to have big air pockets and that is because
the dough is wet, okay. So, I want to show you what
it’s like to make bread in a commercial kitchen because obviously in a commercial kitchen you
don’t make one loaf at a time. And we also don’t make it by the cup. We actually would take
this and measure this out and find out how many pounds
of flour one loaf needs and we usually process
this in ten loaves or more. And we’ve got a production
kitchen back here so let’s go down here
and take a look and see how we’re going to make ten
loaves of bread at one time. (Playful guitar) This is normally how bread is made instead of making it one loaf at a time like we’re doing at home, this
is a ten pound loaf of dough and we are going to scale this out now into our individual loaves. Each individual loaf will
weigh about 18 ounces and so what they’re going to do is they’re going to cut
off a piece of the dough and weigh it until they get 18 ounces. Once they get 18 ounces,
they’re going to pass it down to the crew then who is
going to shape the dough. And so, the dough at this stage has been resting for 15 minutes. It’s kneaded for 10 minutes
and now it’s rested for 15 and it’s totally ready to shape. Are these ready to go? – They’re ready. – Alrighty, let’s bring these
down here to the shaping crew. There you go. There’s one and here’s another one. We’re gonna take it and we
are gonna put a little bit of flour on the bench. Not a whole lot, Just a little. Just to keep it from sticking. You certainly don’t
want this to be sliding around on your bench. We’re gonna take this and
we’re gonna flatten it out into a nice rectangle cause
we’re making ciabatta. Ciabatta usually is in a rectangle and if it’s not in a
rectangle, it doesn’t matter. This is not going to be like
your traditional ciabatta, in that it’s gonna have a very fine grain, very small holes in it. So, we’re just gonna make
into nice little loaves. I’m gonna put them on the rack. We’re gonna put them in this giant oven and this oven is more like
a phone booth that we have. That’s that loud noise
you hear is the engine and the fans of that
oven and this whole rack will be lifted up and it’s gonna rotate in that oven and bake the bread. The beautiful thing about this oven is that it also adds steam to the bread. That’s what gives that nice
hard crispy crust is the steam. At home, we’re just gonna take it, we’re gonna spray a little water, or take a little brush
and brush some water on the surface of the
bread so that the surface of the bread is moist. And so that when it’s
done, it’s gonna be crispy. I would not ever take water and spray it inside your home oven
because if that cold water hits the light bulbs in your home oven, it’s gonna explode, so
we don’t wanna do that. So, this is how bread is
made on a larger scale. You can practice making
bread and guess what guys, if you wanna practice making bread, your neighbors will love you because what are you gonna
do with all this bread when you’re done making it? If you don’t eat it all, you
can take it to your neighbors. And your neighbors will
think you’re the best thing since sliced bread (laughs). Okay, so I’m gonna slice
this all the way down and there we go. We’ve got a loaf of sliced bread and yeah look, there’s
those nice holes in there. Okay, garlic bread. You can take a slice of
bread, put it in the toaster, believe it or not, toaster,
take a raw piece of garlic and just rub it over the toasted bread and you’re gonna have a garlic bread and it’s gonna be phenomenal. You don’t have any extra
butter or anything like that. But you can make wonderful croutons out of this like that too. So, here we have our lovely
loaf of bread that’s sliced and I’m going to shingle
this out a little bit so you can actually see it,
get on there, there we are. There’s our bread all nice and sliced. Ta da Then we also have loaves. We can take a nice loaf of bread. That is done, Ta da. I’ll wrap that up in a
nice little dish towel or a nice little piece of Parchment or you can even go to the store and find some nice tissue
papers to wrap them up in and give them away as gifts. Who doesn’t like homemade
bread, for crying out loud? So, I hope you try this recipe and just let me know what you do with it because there’s so much to
do with a loaf of bread. But, make your bread at home. That way you know what’s into it. Play with your flours. Once you get this recipe down, play with adding some
Whole Wheat flour to it and what I would do with that
is just use a little bit, not replace it all with Whole Wheat cause you would just get a pancake. But, you can use some Amaranth flour. You can use Kama flour. You can use a lot of different flours to add nutrition to it. You can mix in cooked grains,
like if you had left over brown rice or if you have
some Kimwa or even some Shiro, you can take that and
stir that in to your dough so you’re gonna get some mixed grains and some different things into your bread to make it more than just
a lovely white bread. But, because you made this yourself and you know what quality
of flour you bought and you know the quality
of all your ingredients, this is so much better than a plain old white bread you would
buy in the grocery store. You can get our recipes
on pbscharlotte.org or you can email me at
[email protected] I’d love to hear from you. Let me know how you made your bread. Let me know if it worked for you. I’m sure it will. Thank you for watching this
episode of Charlotte Cooks. I’ll catch you again next time. (light jazz)